In the middle ages, the viceroy of God was the most weighty person. The pope was so vigorous so that he was able to depose sovereigns of the Holy Roman Empire, and one of them was even forced to beg in front of the Roman bishop and ask for forgiveness. However, not only the heads of catholic church stood out from the environment of clerics, there were still persons who bequeathed their footstep. Let's go discuss one of the most interesting of them this time.
Mr. Konrad von Gochstaden was a child of the canon of the Cologne cathedral, the temple which Konrad was going to redesign at the summit of his weight. No information left about his young years. We don't also imagine for sure in which year von Gochstaden was born. However, already in year 1216 he was named canon, and ten years later the pastor of the cathedral in Cologne. While the years of his ministry, the guy gained the reputation of an uncompromising and rough person. Some time later the bishop of Cologne expired, and the clergy in the cathedral elected Konrad without doubt. The guy immediately rushed to the work, seized the stuff and encounter several times with local dukes, who wished him to avert reigning lonely in Cologne. After all, when this men suppressed sovereign rulers, the townspeople exhilarated and share a bit weight of the aristocracy, while the practically self-governing area moved under the rule of the priest.
Soon the von Gochstaden and the pope had a disagreement. When the death of bishop of Mainz occurred, the public insisted von Gochstaden to be named on the seat, while the pope prevent him sharing several important regions simultaneously, and after that even revoked Konrad's title of legate in Germany. After falling off in the relationship between the couple, the term between the archbishop and Holy Roman Emperor Wilhelm also fell. Von Gohstaden did not give up, and wait for Wilhelm's decease. In the election campaign of the further Holy Roman sovereign, the man sold the vote for a huge quantity of money to the brother of English king Henry III. As a outcome, Richard took the position of Emperor, and in a short period Konrad solemnly place a wreath on Richard's head. But von Gochstaden is also famous for his statue on Cologne city hall, which pleasant citizens trimed after his death. The masterpiece raises on a sphere depicting autofellation, which means an action when a person caresses own pecker with his mouth. It's a strange work, isn't it?
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One interesting fact in the expansion of Islam is the rapidity of its spread. At the dawn, during Muhammad's life, the Arabian peoples were dispersed and regret different gods and objects. That time the tribes located generally in the southern part of the Arabian Peninsula, became quickly organized, moving to a new step of development and started the Caliphate, then for several years subdued vast lands on some mainlands. At first glance, it looks that all the staff was easy, but if we stare thoroughly, we will see a bit different situation.
The basis of this huge state goes back to the death of the Prophet, who gave rise to a new religion for Muslims. The earlies stage of this empire is Rashidun Caliphate. Muslims called it after the term embracing the reign of the earliest four Caliphs. Immediately after Muhammad 's death, Abu Bakr, the second Caliph, encounter the obstacles. New religion had not sit confidently in the brains of the Arabs, so many of them started to seek new still active idols. About every family had an own preacher, who the Arabs wanted to listen to. Apparently, if there would not be Muhammad, the Prophet's place was aimed by many other opponents. After a few years of internal wars, the first Caliph left the Caliph's place to his friend Umar. The second Caliph had to struggle with local tribes as well, but Umar was able to considerably extended the borders of the state. Probably because of Umar's lively military career, he was murdered by a Persian slave while praying.
The 3rd ruler, Uthman, also died violently. During his reign opposite sentiments against him raised, in spite of military success in the conquest of Persia and some other territories. After some violent actions the protesters stormed to Caliph's home and assassinated him during the studying the Koran. Usman's allies also determined to take revenge for their slain ruler and killed about 4 thousand opponents. Following ruler, Ali, took start with a battle known as the battle of the Camel. In short time the new caliph was assassinated by opponents woe were irritated with the crack in the Arabic society. Then Muawiya, a relative of the previous Caliph Uthman, who came to power, left the position to his son, thus disestablishing the period of the Rashidun Caliphate and establishing the Umayyad Caliphate.
In 2016 the Russians wanted to erect the statue of one of their most important tzars, Ivan IV, but society started the protest and the initiative was suspended. Who was this cruel guy and why does a part of the Russians demonstrate their enmity towards the tzar called by the people Ivan the Terrible?
This famous tzar could competit for the title of the most cruel rulers in history of Russia. But he would take only the second place, because Stalin is responsible in elimination of millions Soviet citizens, which is much more than achievements of Ivan IV. But it can happen because of difference in population of the state in 16th and 20th century. Since his childhood Ivan was the quite cruel boy. His favorite game was the throwing a cat from the top of the Kremlin. He also is famous for the murder of his own sun during an aggravation of his mental disease. Yes, he had mental instability and paranoia.
But the most bloody episode in his biography is the massacre that he launched in one the most influential state in the time, Novgorod Republic. Sometimes this state is considered as an embryo of democracy in Russia, which Ivan IV drawn in blood. Before Ivan the Terrible the Russians had not seen such atrocities. This conflict started with Ivan's suspicions that citizens of Novgorod Republic has a intention to accept Polish-Lithuanian rule and invite of Moscovian nobleman as a ruler of the republic. Ivan IV did not take attention that these two intentions were controversial. He had already form his own forces called oprichnina, that had exceeding power. The tzar sent this guard to Novgorod and while he reached the city they plumber and sacked numerous cities and towns around the city. What their was doing in the city was terrible. They tortured to death and killed about 30% of population, however some historians claim different numbers. They sacked the houses and burned the fields so in a short period of time the inhabitants experienced a famine. Then this guys plundered and sacked another Russian city, Pskov, and started atrocities in Moscow.
Such a sad story...